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Monday, October 19, 2020 | History

2 edition of Drainage areas and surface levels of the Great Lakes, 1860 to 1910 found in the catalog.

Drainage areas and surface levels of the Great Lakes, 1860 to 1910

by William Herbert Bixby

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  • 11 Currently reading

Published by [U.S. Lake Survey in Washington, D.C .
Written in English


Edition Notes

ContributionsU.S. Lake Survey
Classifications
LC ClassificationsGB1627.G8 A4 1911
The Physical Object
Pagination1 v. (unpaged) :
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL24635603M
LC Control Number96026354

The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact is an agreement between eight Great Lakes states and two Canadian provinces to regulate diversion of water from the Great Lakes basin. The goal is to provide protection and sustainable use of the Great Lakes for future generations. the relative fluctuations of each of the Great Lakes by , the elevations of the lakes above sea level were not established until In , levels were run from Greenbush (now Rensselaer), N.Y. on the Hudson River, westerly along the Erie Canal, wagon roads and, the New York and Oswego Midland Railroad to Oswego, N.Y. on Lake.

4 GREAT LAKES WATER LEVELS discussion of policy options, especially when that discussion could be contemporaneous with the early stages of the IJC study. The WSTB Colloquium on Great Lakes Water Levels: Shoreline Dilemmas was held in Chicago on March , Great Lakes, chain of deep freshwater lakes in east-central North America comprising Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. The combined area of the Great Lakes—s square miles—represents the largest surface of fresh water in the world, covering an area exceeding that of the United Kingdom.

An enthusiastic outdoorsman, Dennis has written a comprehensive book on the Great Lakes from the perspective of personal experience, scientific data and historical background. He describes the area in its early pristine beauty, from the Indian tribes to the first European settlers and the dawning of industrialization that almost destroyed this. In response to decreasing water levels in the Great Lakes, especially Lake Michigan and Lake Huron, the International Upper Great Lakes Study (IUGLS) asked USGS to continuously measure flows in the connecting channels of St. Marys, St. Clair, and Detroit Rivers, and Water Survey Canada (WSC) to measure flows of Niagara River.


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Drainage areas and surface levels of the Great Lakes, 1860 to 1910 by William Herbert Bixby Download PDF EPUB FB2

Drainage Areas and Surface Levels of the Great Lakes, to Bixby, William HerbertU S Lake Survey: : LibrosFormat: Pasta dura. Drainage areas and surface levels of the Great Lakes, to "From the office of Brigadier General W.H. Bixby, Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C." Also available in digital form.

Contributor: Bixby, William Herbert - U.S. Lake Survey Date: Great Lakes water levels data constitute one of the longest high quality hydrometeorological data sets in North America with United States' reference gauge records beginning in Monitoring Great Lakes water levels is an important part of NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans, and coasts.

The combined area of the Great Lakes (s square miles [, square km]) represents the largest surface of fresh water in the world. The lakes— Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario —are located in east-central North America and provide a.

• Water levels in the Great Lakes have fluctuated since Over the last few decades, they appear to have declined for most of the Great Lakes (see Figure 1). The most recent levels, however, are all within the range of historical variation. • Sinceaverage surface water temperatures have increased slightly for each of the Great.

Birth of the Great Lakes The birth of the Great Lakes occurred when the waters fell some feet below the Algonquin and Lundy Gulf planes, through the continued uprising of the land. There was an apparent rest in the subsidence when the waters reached the level of the Iroquois beach, shown in Fig.

The Great Lakes Basin consists of the Great Lakes and the surrounding lands of the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin in the United States, and the province of Ontario in Canada, whose direct surface runoff and watersheds form a large drainage basin that feeds into the lakes.

It is generally considered to also include a small area. This figure displays how water levels in each of the Great Lakes have changed since For each year, the shaded band shows the range of monthly average water levels, and the line in the middle shows the annual average.

The graph uses the to average as a baseline for depicting change. The Great Lakes are a vast shared resource. They contain roughly 18% of the world supply of fresh surface water, and 84% of North America’s supply. They are home to millions of people, and are fundamental to the well-being of one third of the population of Canada and one tenth of the population of the United States.

Great Lakes Water Levels * Mean levels are calculated by averaging the best available gage data at report generation and are subject to change. ** Period of Record - Great Lakes Water Levels (Feet) This report was generated at (Eastern): Monday October 26 AM OCT OCT OCT The study covered a rectangular, multi-state area of by kilometers centered on Missouri, and a corresponding volume extending from the topographic surface to a depth of 50 kilometers below sea level.

Lake Superior, the largest of the Great Lakes, has a water surface area of 82, sq km and a maximum depth of m. The surface of Lake Superior is large enough to contain the land area of the states of Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Maryland, and New Jersey combined.

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GLRI effort is being coordinated and managed by the USGS Midwest Area in accordance with the USGS science strategy - one that is driven by cross-disciplinary integrative science and conducted in collaboration with partners to provide resource managers with the information and decision-making tools they need to help restore the Great Lakes.

Courtesy of the Library of Congress. Freighters in the Soo Locks, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, about Canals helped the Great Lakes prosper. The state of Michigan built the St.

Mary's Falls Ship Canal, called the Soo Locks, from to to speed ore and grain from Lake Superior to markets and industries along the lower lakes. fluctuation on the lakes. In recent history, a period of nearly three decades of above average water levels on the Great Lakes, during which time record highs were approached or exceeded each decade, was followed by a decade of low levels.

Lake Michigan-Huron rose from record lows in the s to extreme high levels in less than a decade. Great. Get this from a library. Great Lakes water levels, monthly and annual average water surface elevations. [National Ocean Survey.;]. If the lakes could be drained to the level of the sea, Lake Erie would disappear, Lake Huron would be reduced to insignificant dimensions, Lake Michigan to a length of about miles, with a width of 25 or 30 miles, while Lakes Ontario and Superior, with diminished areas, would still preserve the dignity of their present titles as Great Lakes.

Changes in water levels of the Great Lakes from diversions and control works require a significant amount of time to take effect due to the amount of surface area of this lake system. On the upper lakes, it takes approximately three and one half years for one-half of the anticipated result to occur.

The Niagara River drains an area ofsquare miles (, square kilometers) including the Upper Great Lakes. The surface area of Lake Erie is 9, square miles (25, square kilometers).

It is the shallowest of all the Great Lakes, averaging 60 feet (m) in depth. The levels of the Great Lakes vary on an annual basis in.

The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canadian–American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario. Quebec is at times included as part of the region because, although it is not in a Great Lake watershed, it is in the St.

Lawrence. (Washington, Govt. print. off., ), by Edward Asahel Birge (page images at HathiTrust) GBG8 A4 Drainage areas and surface levels of the Great Lakes, to   In general, lakes without surface drainage or with a substantial contribution from the baseflow have a high saline content.

TROPICAL SWAMPS Swamps are areas with standing or slowly moving water in the non-capillary pores of the upper layers of the soil combined with vegetation-covered land oversaturated with water temporarily or permanently.INDEX WORDS: Glacial geology, geologic history, proglacial lakes, Great Lakes basin, shoreline erosion, lake levels.

INTRODUCTION The North American Great Lakes watershed (Fig. 1) covers aboutkm 2 and is home to one-tenth of the population of the United States and one-quarter the population of Canada.

It includes.